Myopic people cannot see distant objects clearly as light is focused in front of the retina instead of on the retina. Myopia can be easily corrected with spectacles and contact lenses.
The Hyperopic eye focuses light behind the retina (instead of on the retina). A little hyperopia is not a problems because the lens compensates easily, however, if there is a significant amount of hyperopia, the effort of focusing can lead to symptoms. Hyperopic people may have normal vision, but take greater effort to focus (particularly for near tasks such as reading) which can result in tired eyes and headaches. Reading correction helps to relieve the eye strain.
Astigmatism is when the cornea (front surface of the eye) is shaped like a football (two different curvatures, one steeper than the other) rather than a spherical shape (uniform curvature like a soccer ball). Astigmatism results in distorted vision and can be corrected with spectacles and contact lenses.
Presbyopia is a common condition that makes near vision blurry due to the lens inside the eye losing its flexibility with age (and thus the ability to focus up close is decreased). Presbyopia is usually first noticed between the ages of 40 to 45 and cannot be prevented as it is due to the ageing process of the lens (presbyopia occurs in everyone).
SOME COMMON EYE DISEASES
Cataracts are a cloudiness that form in the lens of the eye (which is normally clear). Poor vision results because the cloudiness interferes with the light entering the eye. Cataracts can be removed surgically and be replaced with an artificial lens when spectacles can no longer improve the vision.
It is vital that all diabetics have an eye examination every 12 months. Diabetes can affect the blood vessels in the retina (the back of the eye) which can cause significant vision loss. Early stages of diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retina) may not be symptomatic however can be treated and managed with early detection.
Glaucoma is a high pressure inside the eye that can cause blindness if left untreated. Usually there are no symptoms until permanent damage has occurred. Glaucoma can be managed very easily such that very little damage occurs, so it is vital to have regular optometric examinations for early detection.
Macula Degeneration is the breakdown of cells in the macula (the part of the retina that detects fine detail) thus losing central vision. The two major causes of macula degeneration is age and smoking, and unfortunately a cure has yet to be found. There are some treatments available that have better results and can delay the disease with early detection.